Ref NoMS 1579/1/2
TitleBarrow and Geraldine S. Cadbury Trust
Date1920 - 2002
LevelSeries
AccessStatusPartially closed (Content)
AdminHistoryThe Barrow and Geraldine S. Cadbury Trust was established in 1920 as a formal extension of the private charitable giving of Barrow and Geraldine Cadbury. Barrow financed the Trust with twenty thousand one-pound shares of Cadbury Brothers Ltd. The deed of trust dated 21 February 1921 (MS 1579/1/2/2/1) named Barrow and Geraldine as Trustees of the new charity with Barrow subsequently being appointed as treasurer and chair. In creating the Trust, Barrow and Geraldine were greatly influenced by the charitable work of George Cadbury (Barrow's uncle) and Joseph Rowntree. In fact, the deed establishing the Joseph Rowntree Charitable Trust in 1904 was used as a model for the Barrow and Geraldine S. Cadbury Trust founding deed.

Barrow and Geraldine agreed early in their marriage to live modestly and to give most of their wealth to charity. This decision was taken in accordance with their Quaker faith and strong desire to combat the social ills of the day. The value of Barrow's own Cadbury Brothers shares together with those inherited from his father in 1899 was considerable. Prior to the creation of the Trust and the allied Barrow Cadbury Fund, Barrow and Geraldine were perennial supporters of the adult school movement, Birmingham's free hospitals, the Society of Friends, the Temperance Movement and penal reform, particularly relating to the treatment of young offenders. This last point was of great concern to Geraldine, who would serve as the catalyst for the first children's court in the nation being established in Birmingham. This pattern of charitable giving would continue, albeit on a more formal basis, under the auspices of the Trust (and Fund).

The Quaker reputation for accurate record keeping, linked to historic proscriptions on the occupations open to Friends, is clearly in evidence in the earliest records of the Trust. While the minutes of the Trust commence in 1924, the audited accounts and donation lists date to the formation of the charity in 1920. Hugh C. Aston, Chartered Accountant, was employed as auditor and served in this position from 1921 until 1944 when Wilfred E. Littleboy was appointed to the role.

During its first year the Trust made subscriptions and donations totalling £966 2s to eighteen organisations, primarily in Birmingham. The most substantial of these were made to the Friends Emergency and War Victims and Relief Committee (£250), the Birmingham Citizen's Committee (£100), the National Adult School Union (£100), the Society of Friends Irish Relief Fund (£100) and Westhill Training College, Selly Oak (£100). Small donations were also made to the Howard Association (now the Howard League for Penal Reform), Queen's Hospital, Birmingham and the Royal National Lifeboat Institution. Donations increased markedly for the year ending 22 February 1922 due to £3,000 being allocated to the construction of Cropwood Open Air School for sickly children. The project carried forward the work of the open air school at Uffculme, opened in 1911 under Geraldine and Barrow's patronage. The site selected for the new school was the former family holiday home located near Bromsgrove. Beyond providing for the education and physical wellbeing of children away from the polluted urban centre of Birmingham as Uffculme did, Cropwood additionally served as a boarding school allowing students to enjoy longer periods of convalescence. Once completed, Cropwood was donated to the City of Birmingham and administered by the Education Department.

In 1924 Barrow consulted with the Chief of Inland Revenue Claims Department to determine which criteria were used to determine if an organisation was charitable. The official, Mr. Willis, stated that to be charitable an organisation's activities must fall into one of four categories. In order of importance these were classed as, 1) religious, 2) educational, 3) the relief of poverty, and 4) public purposes. Barrow commented that the third point was particularly difficult to define. A note was made in the minutes that in future any new organisation due to receive Trust support must be approached to determine if they have been classed as a 'charitable institution' by Inland Revenue. The uncertainty as to the definition of what constituted a 'charitable object' or a 'charitable institution' led Barrow to establish the Barrow Cadbury Fund in 1924 to provide an alternate channel for payments to organisations not classed as charities or to individuals (particularly Friends or retired employees of the Cadbury family) deserving of support.

The Barrow and Geraldine S. Cadbury Trust did not begin its existence as a grant making charity. Between 1920 and the late 1960s most trust giving was reflected through subscriptions and donations to established institutions or in response to special appeals. Subscriptions were usually made on an annual basis to an organisation without any stipulation as to how the funds were to be used. In contrast to grants, subscriptions required little supervision and could be readily managed by Barrow and his private secretary.

In 1934 Barrow and Geraldine invited their children, Dorothy Adlington Cadbury, Paul Strangman Cadbury and Geraldine Mary Cadbury to join the Trust. By this date Paul had established his own charity, the Paul S. Cadbury Trust, along similar lines to that of his parents. The three children became the first trustees to join the charity since its inception.

The decision to offer trusteeships to the next generation of the family became a defining feature of the Trust and continues to the present day (2014). In addition to maintaining family ties between the current cohort of trustees and the Trust's progenitors the participation of Barrow and Geraldine's descendants in the governance of the Trust is viewed as a useful means of bringing new ideas and interests to the attention of the organisation.

By 1935 Trust assets had risen to £68,780 1s 6p, up from the £23,124 8s 9p recorded in 1921. The periodic donation of British Cocoa Company shares from Barrow to the Trust ensured that charitable expenditures rose with the value of investments. For the year ending 05 April 1935 the Trust disbursed £7,197 18s 1p in donations to nearly one hundred recipients. The largest of these were made to Westhill Training College, Selly Oak (£1,722 11s 1p) and the Friends Service Council (£1,500).

Under Barrow's chairmanship the Trust held an annual meeting to approve the accounts and list of donations, examine the trust's deeds and re-appoint Barrow as chairman and treasurer. During meetings it was desired that decisions be reached through consensus, though if this was not possible after a period of reflection the minority was expected to defer to the majority. Trustees unable to attend the annual meeting, often held at Barrow and Geraldine's home in Edgbaston, were encouraged to share their views in writing and for these comments to be circulated to attendees. Decisions in need of urgent action could be taken outside of the meeting if agreed in writing by all the trustees.

Though most donations and subscriptions approved by the Trust focused on Birmingham or the Midlands support was also given to national causes and international peace work. By the financial year ending 04 April 1942 the Trust began to record its giving by region: Birmingham, Midlands, national and international. This practice continued until 1962 when the Trust began to record its subscriptions, donations and grants by theme. The first list of thematic categories consisted of 'Society of Friends', 'Education', 'Work for Peace and International Work', 'Temperance Work', 'Penal Reform and Research', 'General Social Work', 'Youth Activities', 'Medical' and 'Other Religious Activities'. The use of grant subject classifications remains a central feature of Trust record keeping and was borrowed from the allied Paul S. Cadbury Trust.

Following the death of Geraldine Cadbury on 30 January 1941 the search began for an additional trustee. In 1944 Rachel Eveline Cadbury, Paul's wife, was appointed to the post. Barrow continued to chair the Trust until his death on 09 March 1958 at the venerable age of ninety-five. With his father's passing Paul was asked to take up the chairmanship of the Trust. He accepted this position and remained chair of the Barrow and Geraldine S. Cadbury Trust, the Barrow Cadbury Fund Ltd. and the Paul S. Cadbury Trust (and later Chapmans Hill School Farm Ltd.) until his death in 1984. During his first meeting in the chair on 15 June 1958 Paul proposed to increase the number of trustees above the seven stipulated in the original deed of trust. By 1959 Paul and Rachel's children Catherine Rachel Hickinbotham, Edward Paul Cadbury, Philippa Helen Southall and Charles Lloyd Cadbury had been appointed to the board of trustees. Given their collective background in criminal justice the new trustees were soon tasked with managing the Southfield Hostel for ex-borstal boys in London as part of the newly formed Southfield Trust.

Under Paul's chairmanship regular informal trustee meetings were convened in addition to the established annual 'policy' meeting (MS 1579/1/2/1/2). These weekly or bi-weekly gatherings, usually attended by 'senior' trustees Paul, Rachel and Dorothy, allowed the Trust to address urgent business with greater alacrity and to more efficiently manage routine administrative tasks. The minutes of these meetings, often held on a Sunday, were known as the 'Sunday Papers'.

The administrative work of the Trust was initially carried out by Barrow Cadbury. Though minutes were to have been typed, a number of meetings are recorded in his own hand. In 1944 it was decided to seek clerical assistance and Joyce R. Taylor, Barrow's secretary at Cadbury Brothers Ltd., was appointed Trust secretary with additional responsibilities for the Fund. This action was not cited in Trust minutes until 1951. Joyce served in this role until her retirement in 1963 when Edith Ferneyhough, who had been Paul's secretary at Cadburys, was appointed to the job. Clerical support was primarily called upon for the annual meeting, with trustees, particularly Paul, carrying out this function on other occasions.

Paul retired as Chairman of Cadbury Brothers Ltd. in 1964. Freed from his business concerns, he undertook the task of building up the trusts and Fund on a more professional basis. In 1965 the Cadbury Trusts took up residence at 2 College Walk, Selly Oak. Prior to this date much of the Trust's routine business had been conducted from Paul's company office at the Bournville works. Following Barrow's death in 1958 Paul had been eager to broaden the scope of Trust activities beyond long-established annual subscriptions to Friends and temperance groups. He was concerned that the Trust was not becoming involved in enough new initiatives and that this quasi-stagnation could prove damaging in the long-term. However, in order to address these concerns and to alter the course of the Trust, he would require help.

In 1966 Paul circulated a memorandum to trustees and Fund directors relating to the future administration of the Trust. He proposed that additional professional assistance would be required to cope with the growing administrative workload generated by the Trust and Fund. This upsurge was due in large part to increasing Trust expenditure resulting from the rising value of Cadbury shares. For the financial year ending 04 April 1958, the first year of Paul's chairmanship, total Trust investments amounted to £897,765 1s 8p with £55,073 5s 7p disbursed as donations or subscriptions. By the financial year ending 04 April 1966 investments had risen to a value of £1,712,631 11s 11p with donations totalling £80,281 8s 6p. As Paul pointed out in his 1971 'An Account of Three Charitable Trusts and a Benevolent Company', '…what may have been a manageable undertaking in the early days has itself become big business. Sooner or later all the larger Trusts are forced to employ professional help.' (MS 1579/1/1/12/1/1)

During 1967 and 1968 Paul approached several potential candidates for the role of administrative secretary. The post was filled by Kenneth Nicholson, the former Headmaster of Saffron Walden Friends School, who took up work on a part-time basis in September 1968, with the support of clerical secretary Edith Ferneyhough. After carrying out an initial survey of developments in the field of peace and international relations Kenneth died unexpectedly. That same year, 1969, Edith retired due to illness and died soon after. Despite his short tenure, Kenneth had convinced Trustees of the value of professional staff and of the formidable challenge such a post entailed. In June 1969, Anthony Wilson, a former colonial civil servant and commissioner for community development in independent Malawi was appointed as full-time administrative secretary. Anthony's name had first been circulated for the post in 1967 and his subsequent appointment owed much to his background in the international arena and to the Trust's desire to become more involved in this area.

At the time of his appointment Anthony was one of the very few professional trust and foundation staff employed in the United Kingdom. These posts had hitherto largely been the province of retired academics, military officers and senior civil servants. Anthony shared Paul's desire to create a professional administrative group to carry out the charitable functions of the Trust. One of his first innovations was the monthly review, a candid summary of the month's events with notes on grant requests and a calendar of activities for the coming month (MS 1579/1/1/4). Anthony advocated a common agenda for the Trust and Fund, an approach that was subsequently adopted. He also encouraged the Fund to be used to more directly support Trust policy rather than for its original purpose of approving small personal annuities.

Under the new Secretary the scale of grant making by the Trust increased, particularly under the heading of 'peace and international relations' and the new category, 'race relations', introduced at Anthony's urging in the early 1970s. The subject of race had hitherto been viewed by Paul as adjunct to urban planning work. After two years in post Trustees approved the appointment of an Assistant Secretary, Eric Adams to support Anthony and the nascent administrative team. Eric had worked for the Worcestershire Social Service Department and was chosen in part for his familiarity with community development issues. This portfolio soon expanded to include the preponderance of neighbourhood development grants made by the Trust. By 1973 the Cadbury Trusts employed five full-time and part-time staff: Anthony, Eric, Meriel Cooling as Finance Secretary to the Trust and Fund, Carole Yates as Finance and Office Secretary to the Paul S. Cadbury Trust and the Worgan Trust and Doreen Jacob as Office Secretary to the Trust and Fund.

The recruitment of professional staff was vital to fulfilling Paul's vision of transforming the Cadbury Trusts into a grant making institution capable of supporting innovative projects and organisations. As a seed funder the Trust provided the opportunity for groups to demonstrate the feasibility of new ideas and alternate ways of problem solving to local government, national government, statutory agencies and community groups. Paul was keenly aware that official bodies were hesitant to fund experimental projects or to collaborate with untried groups.

Anthony and Eric were encouraged to leave the office and establish connections with potential grantees as well as with other trusts and foundations working in similar fields to the Trust. Anthony became involved in facilitating the settlement of the First Sudanese Civil War and visited that country as an advisor after the Addis Ababa Accord was signed in 1972. His responsibilities in Birmingham included liaison with black self-help groups based in Handsworth and Lozells during a period of considerable tension between community groups and the police. In addition to meeting grantees Eric helped to establish the Foundations' Forum Assistants' Group which later became the Charitable Trusts Administrators Group and is now known as the Association of Charitable Foundations. Eric and Anthony were also involved in the Birmingham Charitable Trusts Group and the West Midlands Community Trust. These organisations took a strategic view of the charitable sector and allowed participants, including the Trust, to compare notes on projects they had supported and to provide technical assistance to charities operating within their geographic area.

In 1975 the Trust published its first publicly available joint bi-annual report for the Barrow and Geraldine S. Cadbury Trust, Paul S. Cadbury Trust and Barrow Cadbury Fund Ltd. The work of trusts and foundations had previously been carried out in some secrecy and Trustees were eager to promote greater transparency in the sector. The report, primarily intended for other funding organisations, revealed Cadbury Trusts' policies, accounts and lists of grantees. Despite drawing criticism from right wing newspapers the annual report exemplified the Trust's commitment to openness. Annual reports notwithstanding, Trustees wished to avoid publicity when making grants for fear that the Trust, and not the grantee, would become the focus of public interest.

The Trust encouraged prospective grantees to ring the office to discuss their ideas with Anthony and Eric. Anthony was generally the first point of contact for an applicant unless a connection had already been established with Eric or another member of staff. Later, different contacts were provided depending on the portfolio the project might fall under (for example, employment applications would be referred to Assistant Secretary Joe Montgomery during his tenure in the late 1980s while Northern Ireland applications would be passed to Eric). Applications for support usually arrived through the post where they were allocated to one of three headings. The first category, 'out of the blues' referred to unsolicited applications with little to no likelihood of support. The second category, 'applications received' or 'ARs', were promising applications that required additional information in order to proceed. The third category consisted of likely grants that would immediately be forwarded to the relevant Trust secretary. Out of the blues and ARs were included in each monthly review for the consideration of Trustees. Out of the blues would be discarded if none of the Trustees showed any interest in the potential project. ARs that had been satisfactorily followed up could be referred to Trustees or Directors for a final decision as a potential grant.

The 1973-1975 annual report is illuminating in tracking the marked decrease in subscriptions in favour of new initiatives funded through grants. For the Barrow and Geraldine S. Cadbury Trust alone subscriptions fell from 182 in 1969 to 26 in 1975. This trend is a reflection of trustee interest in specific projects or pieces of work over modest, recurrent subscriptions to established organisations.

Trust grant expenditure consistently outstripped spending by the Fund and the Paul S. Cadbury Trust. For the financial year 1974/1975 the Trust spent £252,754 on grants while the combined totals of the Fund and Paul S. Cadbury Trust just exceeded £75,000. Within Barrow and Geraldine S. Cadbury Trust grants, the preponderance of funding was directed to the social service (25.2%), education (18.7%) and race relations (12.5%) categories. Race relations spending rose remarkably from the previous year, with the total commitment increasing from £7,754 in 1973/1974 to £31,680 in 1974/1975. The market value of Trust investments for financial year 1974/1975 amounted to £3,318,506 with an annual income of £348,957. These totals may be compared with those of the Fund, £1,238,595 in investments with an income of £75,278, and the Paul S. Cadbury Trust, £531,775 in investments with an income of £50,285.

The value of Trust investments rose considerably as a result of the 1969 merger between Cadbury and Schweppes. The recruitment of professional staff thus correlated with a marked increase in Trust resources and allowed for the major expansion of grant making programmes. By the financial year 1979/1980 Trust investments had roughly doubled to £5,989,833 since the beginning of the decade. Prior to the merger between the Barrow and Geraldine S. Cadbury Trust and the Paul S. Cadbury Trust in 1994 Trust investments stood at £25,133,804.

Increasing grant expenditure did not necessarily imply an increase in the number grants. Rather, the intention of Trustees was to 'prune' back subscriptions and personal grants while concentrating resources on major projects. This process was referred to as 'fewer and larger'. Eric was responsible for a good deal of the pruning, often sending a letter of intention to recipients and closing the subscription with a generous final payment. As a result of this association Eric was jokingly accused of finishing off any grant he touched.

Following the formation of Cadbury Schweppes Paul and Anthony proposed to diversify the investment portfolio of the Cadbury Trusts. Prior to the merger this portfolio had been dominated by Cadbury shares. The move away from ties with the family business was made to 1) disentangle the interests of the Cadbury Trusts from those of the company, and, 2) protect its capital through a greater breadth of investments. The process of diversification occurred over three decades and resulted in the sale of all Cadbury shares by 2000. Accompanying diversification was an emphasis on ethical investment. In keeping with its Quaker ethos, the trusts and Fund instructed their financial advisors to avoid investments linked to arms production, alcohol, tobacco, gambling or major concerns in apartheid South Africa.

In March 1978 Roger P. Hickinbotham, Richard G. Cadbury and Anna C. Southall were appointed as trustees. They were soon joined by Ruth M. Cadbury and Erica R. Cadbury. All five were grandchildren of Barrow Cadbury and collectively made up the next generation of family trustees. Just as their parents had been appointed to head the Southfield Trust the new trustees were given responsibility for the Minority Arts Programme with Eric's support as Assistant Secretary. This programme was established in the financial year 1980/1981 and aimed to develop minority arts projects in the West Midlands through grants of up to £500.

During the 1980s cutbacks in public expenditure presented Trustees with considerable policy challenges. It was no longer assumed that a successful project piloted with Trust support would be taken up by the government. Disinvestment by the public sector led to a corresponding increase in applications to the Cadbury Trusts from many quarters. The abolition of the county/metropolitan councils under the Local Government Act 1985 contributed to further reductions in public sector grant expenditure, with £2.5 million cut from the former West Midlands County Council region alone. Rising unemployment also coloured much of the grant making landscape during this period and led to the creation of a new employment category at the Trust. Amidst this grim backdrop Trustees continued to support new projects, particularly in employment, to occasionally top up existing projects in urgent need of support but to avoid stepping in to cover shortfalls in public expenditure or to become permanent funders of charitable organisations. The Trust also continued its preference of funding field projects over research projects in the belief that other trusts and foundations were better suited to judge the merits of academic research proposals.

Throughout its history, Barrow and Geraldine S. Cadbury Trustees have regularly and concurrently served as Paul S. Cadbury Trustees and/or the Fund Directors. The financial year 1984/1985 is representative in that all eleven Fund Directors and all six Paul S. Cadbury Trustees also held Barrow and Geraldine S. Cadbury Trusteeships. From 1958 Paul served as chair of all three organisations (as well as the affiliated Chapmans Hill School Farm Ltd.) until his death on 24 October 1984. His successor, Catherine Hickinbotham, similarly assumed both chairmanships and the directorship as her father had done upon Barrow's death in 1958. The interrelated nature of the Cadbury Trusts is further illustrated by administrative and clerical staff working across organisations. While the Paul S. Cadbury Trust was run with a greater degree of autonomy by Paul prior to his death, this organisation too remained closely tied to the Trust and Fund.

The prevalence of Cadbury family members and professional staff holding multiple posts naturally led to a highly flexible and interconnected working environment at the Cadbury Trusts. Annual general meetings and quarterly meetings of the trusts and Fund usually occurred at the same time, since membership was shared and the most efficient use of trustee time was desired. The minutes recording these meetings frequently contain the minutes of the respective trust, interspersed with relevant Fund minutes where the Fund was used as the financial channel. Annual reports and monthly reviews were also recorded jointly between the Fund and trusts.

Trust grant making expenditure in the 1980s rose from £465,314 for the financial year ending 05 April 1981 to £1,512,267 for the year ending 05 April 1991. Spending patterns varied during this period in keeping with changing Trust priorities. While support for race relations and equal opportunities work remained significant and relatively constant, grants made under the employment and peace and international budgets increased considerably. Other programme areas received proportionally lower levels of support including penal affairs, Society of Friends and churches and health, education and social service. Following Paul's death the areas of responsibility held by the trusts were clearly delineated to avoid overlapping patterns of work. Under Eric's leadership, the Paul S. Cadbury Trust became the lead organisation for neighbourhood development work, including projects in Northern Ireland. Ongoing grants beyond this remit were transferred to the Barrow and Geraldine S. Cadbury Trust. In exchange neighbourhood development grants not administered by the Paul S. Cadbury Trust were transferred to its portfolio.

A novel approach to grant management was adopted by the Cadbury Trusts for certain budget headings from the late 1970s onwards. Where appropriate, Trustees would allocate a budget for a certain programme of work, for instance rural development projects in Northern Ireland or financial support for overseas students, to an intermediary rather than to Trust staff. Rather than filter all requests for overseas student aid through the Trust office for individual consideration, a fixed sum was allocated to a number of Birmingham universities and polytechnics on the understanding that admissions staff would select the most deserving candidates for Trust support and draw funds from the assigned budget as necessary. This process drew on the expertise of admissions staff by passing grant decision making, under agreed criteria, on to the universities. Similarly, decisions on grants made in County Fermanagh were channelled through Jim Ledwith of the Fermanagh Trust, whose knowledge of local issues placed him in an excellent position to judge the merits of various grant applications. While periodic updates and reports were expected from intermediaries, the administration of budgets was left in their hands, freeing up Trust staff for other tasks.

The integration of the Barrow and Geraldine S. Cadbury Trust and Paul S. Cadbury Trust eventually led Trustees to open discussions with the Charity Commission about the possibility of amalgamating the two charities. The future of Paul Cadbury's trust had been under periodic review since his death in 1984. While the operation of the trusts had been rationalised to avoid overlapping areas of work it gradually became clear that there was little functional justification for running two allied charities administered by the same staff and governed by the same trustees. The duplication of meetings, financial reporting and record keeping further contributed to the case for merger.

Following a period of negotiation with the Charity Commission between 1993 and 1994 the merger scheme was approved and subsequently authorised by Barrow and Geraldine S. Cadbury Trust and Paul S. Cadbury Trust trustees. On 30 August 1994 the property and assets of the Paul S. Cadbury Trust were formally transferred to the Barrow and Geraldine S. Cadbury Trust. The newly amalgamated trust was referred to as the Barrow Cadbury Trust. In January 1995 the Paul S. Cadbury Trust was removed from the Charity Commission Register. The grant making functions of the defunct Paul S. Cadbury Trust were transferred primarily to the Community Organising Programme and Northern Ireland Programme of the Barrow Cadbury Trust.
    Powered by CalmView© 2008-2019