Ref NoMS 1579/1/9
TitleBarrow Cadbury Trust
Date1993 - 2014
AccessStatusPartially closed (Content)
AdminHistoryThe Barrow Cadbury Trust was formed from the merger of the Barrow and Geraldine S. Cadbury Trust and the Paul S. Cadbury Trust approved under a Charity Commission Order dated 30 August 1994 (MS 1579/1/9/2/1). The Order transferred the property and assets of the Paul S. Cadbury Trust to the Barrow and Geraldine S. Cadbury Trust under the new name the Barrow Cadbury Trust. In turn the Paul S. Cadbury Trust was removed from the register of charities effective 31 January 1995. While the Paul S. Cadbury Trust technically became part of the Barrow and Geraldine S. Cadbury Trust the extensive administrative and operational changes that coincided with the merger effectively generated a new collection of records under the Barrow Cadbury Trust heading.

The future of Paul Cadbury's trust had been under periodic review since his death in 1984. During the ten years that followed the Paul S. Cadbury Trust became more closely integrated with the Barrow and Geraldine S. Cadbury Trust under the auspices of Cadbury Trusts' administrator Eric Adams. While the operation of the trusts' was rationalised to avoid overlapping areas of work it gradually became clear that there was little functional justification for running two allied charities administered by the same staff and governed by the same trustees. The duplication of meetings, financial reporting and record keeping further contributed to the case for merger.

At the time of the merger, 1994, the Trust was under the chairmanship of Charles Cadbury who had recently assumed the role from Catherine Hickinbotham. During that year Rachel Cadbury resigned at the age of ninety-four following sixty years of service as a trustee. In addition to Charles the Trusteeship consisted of Edward Cadbury, Philippa Southall, Anna Southall, Roger Hickinbotham, Richard Cadbury, Erica Cadbury, Ruth Cadbury and James Cadbury. The administration of the Trust and Fund was in the hands of Director Eric Adams and Assistant Director Dipali Chandra. Anthony Wilson, who had served as Trust Secretary since 1969 retired in 1993 having made an incomparable contribution to the professionalization of the Cadbury Trusts. Eric, Anthony's deputy since 1972 was duly promoted to Director of the Trust.

The merger of the trusts brought about an extensive review of grant making priorities and administration at the Cadbury Trusts. To improve the administration of grants Trustees decided to create a series of new programme groups, effectively specialist sub-committees, modelled on the Southfield Trust and the Minority Arts Programme. Seven programmes were in operation by the end of 1994: civil rights, community democracy, disability, gender, penal affairs, racial justice and reconciliation. These programmes evolved in various ways from the grant categories used by the trusts since the late 1960s. Responsibility for each programme fell to a committee of between two and four relevant trustees with a lead trustee acting as a point of contact. Existing grants from both trusts were reassigned from their superseded grant categories to one of the new programme headings. This proved a complex task with only penal affairs grants being block transferred into the new Penal Affairs Programme. All other grants were considered on a case by case basis prior to being assigned to a new category. In addition to serving on the programme committees, Trustees might also act on the staffing or finance committees.

Termly meetings of trustees (and directors) were held three times per year, with the autumn session doubling for the annual general meeting of Trustees. This pattern was directly carried over from the Barrow and Geraldine S. Cadbury Trust. Programme committee meetings were often held on the same day (or during the same weekend) to make the most efficient use of Trustee and staff time.

The reorganisation of the trusts and the creation of new programmes did not immediately alter the Trusts' register of grant recipients. Ongoing grants continued to be paid as agreed and many grantees were simply assigned to a new programme for administrative purposes. However, as the new programme groups settled in many new projects and organisations were funded alongside stalwart grantees.

The Trust was a major supporter of the Citizen Organising Foundation with £130,000 approved for various foundation projects and operations during 1994/1995 alone. Eric Adams had been instrumental in establishing the Citizen Organising Foundation and also served as its chairman. Support for the Foundation was carried over from the Paul S. Cadbury Trust's neighbourhood development portfolio into the new Community Democracy Programme. Other significant programme grants were made to the Community Resources and Information Service Trust (£83,000) and Women Acting in Today's Society (£50,220).

Eric was a major proponent of work in the field of disability, most notably through continued support for Martin Yates Independent Living Services and the Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education. For her part Dipali Chandra was eager to increase Trust involvement in gender projects in the West Midlands, rural Northern Ireland and at the national policy level. During 1995/1996 the Gender Programme made grants to the Birmingham Chinese Youth Project (£7,500), the Fawcett Society (£14,000), Sandwell Women's Enterprise Development Agency (£5,000) and Derry Well Women's Centre (£13,500).

During the late 1990s the Trust increased its efforts to protect the rights of asylum seekers and migrants through the Asylum, Immigration and Resettlement Programme. During 1999/2000 the Trust made grants to the Aston Legal Centre (£12,000), the Congolese Advice and Support Project (£10,000), the European Council on Refugees and Exiles (£27,000), the National Coalition of Anti-Deportation Campaigns (£18,000) and the South Sudanese Community Association, London (£10,000).

In 2003 the Trust opened an office in London and began the process of relocating its operations from Birmingham to the capital. The move was largely the result of increasing collaboration with national level projects and groups based in London or the south. This decision was taken under the Chairmanship of Anna Southall and with the support of the Eric Adams' successor, Director Sukhvinder Stubbs. The move created some friction with grantees in the Midlands who feared the Trust was retrenching from the region. The winding up of the Trust office in Selly Oak caused similar dissatisfaction among longstanding Birmingham staff that were justifiably reluctant to relocate to London.

From 2003 to 2004 the Trust operated from a temporary office on Temple Row, Birmingham while moving into new premises at Tavistock Place, London. A major restructure was carried out during this period as Birmingham staff retired or resigned and new London based staff were recruited. This was a period of transition for the Trust that coincided with a further revision of programme aims.

In 2004 the Trust released a new set of guidance for applicants together with a revised summary of programme priorities. Three new programme groups were established from the seven existing programmes. These were inclusive communities, global exchange and offending and early interventions. Of these only offending and early interventions remained largely unaltered. Inclusive communities and global exchange borrowed on various programme themes already supported by the Trust including the role of women in developing communities, understanding migration and the rights of migrants, promoting independent living for disabled people and improving life chances in deprived neighbourhoods. The Trust maintained a regional focus on the West Midlands or Northern Ireland in each field of work. The new programmes continued to be managed by committees of relevant trustees acting as de facto specialist sub-committees. In 2005 the Finance Committee and Staffing Committee were merged to form a new General Purpose Committee with additional responsibility for auditing processes and procedures and advising on information technology.

In 2004 the Trust established the Commission on Young Adults in the Criminal Justice System and subsequently published the influential report 'Lost in Transition' under the auspices of the Offending and Early Interventions Programme. The report prompted the Trust to convene the Transition to Adulthood (T2A) Alliance, a coalition of organisations and individuals dedicated to improving the opportunities and life chances of young people in their transition to adulthood that are at risk of committing crime and falling into the criminal justice system. T2A identifies best practice and campaigns for a more effective criminal justice system for young adults. As of 2014 T2A remains the mainstay of the current Criminal Justice Programme.

In addition to traditional grant making the Barrow Cadbury Trust also utilises other financial means to support charitable works. In 2010 the trustees decided to use some of the endowment itself to further the aims of the Trust through investments in charities and social enterprises, aiming to achieve both a social and a financial return with the funds. The Foundry, a new social justice centre, was established in London in 2014 as a result of a joint social investment partnership between the Trust, Joseph Rowntree Charitable Trust, LankellyChase Foundation and the Ethical Property Company.

The Barrow Cadbury Fund Ltd. continued to support the Barrow Cadbury Trust following the merger by providing Trustees/Directors with a financial channel not constrained by the laws of charity. However the use of the Fund was already in decline by 1993 in part due to the increasing frequency of charity registration and to a broader interpretation of charitable activities by the Charity Commission. For the financial year ending 05 April 1995 Trust grant expenditure amounted to £1,808,678 as compared to £250,892 for the Fund. By 2006 this figure stood at £2,879,000 for the Trust and £380,000 for the Fund. For both years Fund spending amounted to approximately 13% of that of the Trust.

In 2005 Trustees/Directors agreed to restructure the Fund as a subsidiary of the Barrow Cadbury Trust. This decision was taken following a series of discussions involving Trustees/Directors, Director Sukhvinder Stubbs and the Trust's auditors and legal advisors about the future of the Fund. Restructuring was considered a prudent middle path: as a subsidiary of the Trust the Fund would avoid taxation risks associated with the effects of capital gains and be subject to simplified annual general meeting requirements while continuing to offer a flexible channel for charitable giving. The restructuring process required the dissolution of the company membership in order to allow the Trust to become the sole member of the Fund. Members were contacted and asked to resign their positions. Members who could not be contacted were removed from their posts by a special resolution of the Board. This process was completed by 2008.

With the reorganisation of the Fund proceeding the Trust next applied to become incorporated as a charitable company limited by guarantee and governed by a Memorandum and Articles of Association. The Trusts' application was accepted and subsequently approved by Companies House on 05 June 2006. Registering as a limited company provides financial protection to trustees who are no longer personally liable for the debts of the Company if, and when, these are properly incurred. As a charitable company the Trust was required to de-register and then re-register for charitable status with the Charity Commission.

Sukhvinder resigned as Director in 2008 and was replaced by an interim director until 2009. In November of that year Sara Llewellin was appointed Chief Executive. Under Sara's leadership the scale of social investments increased and the use of programme groups was continued and revised to the current (2014) three-part configuration to include: criminal justice, migration and resources and resilience. The Criminal Justice Programme under the direction of Max Rutherford continues the thread of youth offending work begun by Geraldine Cadbury over one hundred years earlier. The Migration Programme is currently directed by Ayesha Saran and seeks fair treatment for vulnerable migrant groups, a principle that certainly would have been shared by the Trust's founders. The Resources and Resilience Programme maintains the Cadbury Trusts' close ties to Birmingham and the Black Country by helping people to overcome barriers to financial inclusion. This programme is administered by Clare Payne.
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